November 18, 1990: The day Andre Agassi won the season-ending Masters for his first major title
Every day Tennis Majors looks back at the biggest moments in tennis history. On November 18, 1990, Andre Agassi, who had never won a major tournament before, defeated world No 1 Stefan Edberg in the final of the first Masters Cup held in Europe in 15 years
What happened exactly on that day
On November 18, 1990, in the final of the Masters, Andre Agassi won a spectacular four-set match to beat Stefan Edberg, world No 1 at the time (5-7, 7-6, 7-5, 6-2). For the Las Vegas Kid, it was a great way to end a season during which he had been defeated in two Grand Slam finals, at Roland-Garros and at the US Open. The year-end tournament was held for the very first time in Frankfurt, after 13 years at the iconic Madison Square Garden, in New York.
The players: Andre Agassi and Stefan Edberg
- Andre Agassi, the brash, hugely talented Las Vegas Kid,
Andre Agassi, the Las Vegas Kid, born in 1970, had turned professional in 1986 and had soon become one of tennis’ biggest superstars, thanks to his amazing tennis skills but also to his interesting outfits, including the iconic denim shorts and the pink bike shorts (worn as an underlayer). Taught by his father and bred at the Nick Bollettieri Academy, his game relied on a great return (the best of his time) and on hitting the ball on the rise on both sides with incredible power, which was revolutionary at the time and then copied by generations of tennis players.
In 1990, at the age of 20, Andre Agassi had already claimed 11 ATP titles and reached Grand Slam semi-finals three times, at Roland-Garros 1988 (lost to Mats Wilander, 4-6, 6-2, 7-5, 5-7, 6-0) and at the US Open in 1988 and 1989 (lost to Ivan Lendl each time). In 1990, he reached the final at Roland-Garros, where, although he was the heavy favourite, he was defeated by Andres Gomez (6-3, 2-6, 6-4, 6-4). The only thing he still lacked was a major title, which most of the pundits thought he would finally achieve a few months later, when he faced countryman Pete Sampras in the US Open final – however, his young opponent delivered an exquisite performance to deprive him from a first Grand Slam trophy (6-4, 6-3, 6-2).
- Stefan Edberg, supreme serve and volleyer; ice-cool Swede
Stefan Edberg was born in 1966. Very successful in junior tournaments (he achieved the junior Grand Slam in 1983), he almost quit tennis the same year, at the age of 17, after one of his serves accidentally killed a line judge in New-York. He continued and didn’t look back. As early as December 1985, a few months after young Boris Becker had broken through by winning Wimbledon, Stefan Edberg claimed his first Grand Slam, also on grass, at the Australian Open, defeating fellow Swede Mats Wilander in the final (6-4, 6-3, 6-3). The tournament was not held in 1986, due to its indefinite change of date to January, and Edberg would successfully defend his title in January 1987, defeating Aussie favourite Pat Cash (6-3, 6-4, 3-6, 5-7, 6-3).
In 1988, he added a Wimbledon title to his achievements, defeating Boris Becker (4-6, 7-6, 6-4, 6-2) in a final that started one of the most famous rivalries in tennis history. In 1989, Stefan Edberg lost confidence after losing two major finals in a row: the first one at Roland-Garros, defeated by Michael Chang (6-1, 3-6, 4-6, 6-4, 6-2) in a heartbreaking match where he missed 10 break points in the fourth set, and the second one at Wimbledon, where his rival Boris Becker took a brutal revenge from the previous year’s final (6-0, 7-6, 6-4).
The Swede lost in the final of five other important events that year, but in the end, he managed to edge Boris Becker in the final of the Masters Cup (4-6, 7-6, 6-3, 6-1). He started 1990 by reaching the final at the Australian Open, but he was forced to retire in the second set of his clash with Ivan Lendl because of abdominal injury. After a new disappointment at the French Open, where he lost in the first round, Stefan Edberg reclaimed the Wimbledon crown, edging Becker in five sets in their third consecutive final at the All England Club (6-2 6-2 3-6 3-6 -4). He became world No 1 for the first time on August, 13, and, despite an unexpected first-round loss to Alexander Volkov at the US Open (6-3, 7-6, 6-2), he still held the top spot in November.
The place: The Festhalle, Frankfurt, Germany
Founded in 1970, the year-end Masters was the final showdown between the eight best players in the world. Held in a different location every year at the start, in settled at the Madison Square Garden, in New York, from 1977 until 1989. Then, in 1990, the tournament moved to Frankfurt, in Germany, where the Festhalle would host 13,500 spectators. As only the eight top players of the year qualify for the event, the list of its former champions is nothing short of impressive.
The facts: Agassi downs Agassi to win first Frankfurt Masters
In 1990, the year-end Masters Cup left the Madison Square Garden, where it had been held since 1977, to take place in Germany, at the Frankfurt Festhalle. That year, the different professional tours had finally all merged into one international circuit known as the ATP Tour – as a consequence, the Masters was now called the ATP World Tour Championships.
The idea of a year-end championship, displaying the best players in the world, was born in 1969, at the same time as the first year-long series of events – the Grand Prix, created by Jack Kramer, a former professional player who later played a major part in the creation of the ATP. Its first edition, known at first as the Masters Grand Prix, was held in December 1970, in Tokyo. The six best players of the Grand Prix circuit played in a round-robin format, and it was Stan Smith who won the tournament. Seven players competed in the second edition in Paris, and in 1972, the tournament was played for the first time in the format that we all know: eight players dispatched in two pools playing a round-robin phase to try and qualify for the semi-finals. However, in the 1980s, two different formats were tried: in 1982-1984, 12 players played a knock-out tournament, and in 1985, this format was extended to 16 players.
In its first years, the prestigious event moved every year – Tokyo, Paris, Barcelona, Boston, Melbourne, Stockholm, Houston – until, in 1977, it settled down in New York, for thirteen years. There, at the Madison Square Garden, the “World’s Most Famous Arena”, the Masters became more than just a tennis tournament, but a spectacle. In the first edition, tickets were sold out well in advance, with more than 18,500 spectators packing the stands. The tournament director, Ray Benton, had moved the event to January, to avoid competition with American football, and, before the upcoming Super Bowl, the Tennis Masters was the main sports event in the United States that week.
However, all good things must come to an end, and the 1989 Masters, won by Stefan Edberg, was the last one to be played in New York. In 1990, all different circuits finally united to become the ATP Tour, and the Masters, rebranded as the IBM ATP World Tour Championships, was back in Europe for the first time since 1975.
|Year||Name of the event||Location||Champion|
|1970||Masters Grand Prix||Tokyo||Stan Smith|
|1971||Masters Grand Prix||Paris||Ilie Nastase|
|1972||Masters Grand Prix||Barcelona||Ilie Nastase|
|1973||Masters Grand Prix||Boston||Ilie Nastase|
|1974||Masters Grand Prix||Melbourne||Guillermo Vilas|
|1975||Masters Grand Prix||Stockholm||Ilie Nastase|
|1976||Masters Grand Prix||Houston||Manuel Orantes|
|1978*||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Jimmy Connors|
|1979||Masters Grand Prix||New York||John McEnroe|
|1980||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Bjorn Borg|
|1981||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Bjorn Borg|
|1982||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Ivan Lendl|
|1983||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Ivan Lendl|
|1984||Masters Grand Prix||New York||John McEnroe|
|1985||Masters Grand Prix||New York||John McEnroe|
|1986 (1)||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Ivan Lendl|
|1986 (2)*||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Ivan Lendl|
|1987||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Ivan Lendl|
|1988||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Boris Becker|
|1989||Masters Grand Prix||New York||Stefan Edberg|
|1990||ATP Tour World Championship||Frankfurt||Andre Agassi|
|1991||ATP Tour World Championship||Frankfurt||Pete Sampras|
|1992||ATP Tour World Championship||Frankfurt||Boris Becker|
|1993||ATP Tour World Championship||Frankfurt||Michael Stich|
|1994||ATP Tour World Championship||Frankfurt||Pete Sampras|
|1995||ATP Tour World Championship||Frankfurt||Boris Becker|
|1996||ATP Tour World Championship||Hannover||Pete Sampras|
|1997||ATP Tour World Championship||Hannover||Pete Sampras|
|1998||ATP Tour World Championship||Hannover||Alex Corretja|
|1999||ATP Tour World Championship||Hannover||Pete Sampras|
|2000||Tennis Masters Cup||Lisboa||Gustavo Kuerten|
|2001||Tennis Masters Cup||Sydney||Lleyont Hewitt|
|2002||Tennis Masters Cup||Shanghai||Lleyton Hewitt|
|2003||Tennis Masters Cup||Houston||Roger Federer|
|2004||Tennis Masters Cup||Houston||Roger Federer|
|2005||Tennis Masters Cup||Shanghai||David Nalbandian|
|2006||Tennis Masters Cup||Shanghai||Roger Federer|
|2007||Tennis Masters Cup||Shanghai||Roger Federer|
|2008||Tennis Masters Cup||Shanghai||Novak Djokovic|
|2009||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Nikolay Davydenko|
|2010||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Roger Federer|
|2011||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Roger Federer|
|2012||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Novak Djokovic|
|2013||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Novak Djokovic|
|2014||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Novak Djokovic|
|2015||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Novak Djokovic|
|2016||ATP World Tour Finals||London||Andy Murray|
|2017||ATP Finals||London||Grigor Dimitrov|
|2018||ATP Finals||London||Alexander Zverev|
|2019||ATP Finals||London||Stefanos Tsitsipas|
|2020||ATP Finals||London||Daniil Medvedev|
- Between 1977 and 1986, the Masters was held in January the following year
In this first German edition of the ATP World Tour Championship, it was Andre Agassi, the American rising star, who claimed the first major title of his young career. In the final, Agassi met Stefan Edberg for the second time in Frankfurt: the two players had already played each other in the round-robin, and the Swede had prevailed (7-6, 4-6, 7-6). This loss had not affected Agassi’s confidence in any way, as he showed during his semi-final win against world No 2, Boris Becker (6-2, 6-4).
The difference in style between these two players led to a very entertaining match, with Edberg constantly rushing to the net despite Agassi’s skills at return and passing shots. In the end, it was the American’s power which prevailed, and the Las Vegas Kid won in four sets (5-7, 7-6, 7-5, 6-2). Asked how he felt about claiming his biggest title to date and beating the world No 1, Agassi said, according to The New York Times: “I’m not going to say that Stefan doesn’t deserve it, but he knows that that can change real quickly.”
What next: Two more slams for Edberg; Agassi wins eight, is No 1
Stefan Edberg would claim two more Grand Slam titles in his career, both at the US Open, in 1991 and 1992. In total, he would spend 72 weeks as world No 1.
Despite his confidence, it would take two more years before Agassi claimed a first Grand Slam title, at Wimbledon, in 1992, and almost five years would go by before the Las Vegas finally reached world No 1, in April 1995. Although he would play at the Masters 10 more times and reach the final three times (in 1999, 2000 and 2003), Agassi would never win the tournament again.